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2021考研英語閱讀素材積累(6)

2020-06-18 09:44:20| 中公浙江考研網 點擊量:

【導語】有很多考生都說考研英語閱讀好難,其實只是你看的不夠多。經濟學人的文章是考研英語中閱讀的來源之一,浙江考研的考生們平時可以多看里面的文章,為考研英語閱讀打基礎。

 

今天給大家帶來的內容是:就業市場的鴻溝正在擴大

(本文選自《經濟學人》20200523期)

背景介紹:

本文主要描述了新冠疫情之下,勞動力市場的“三個Z”所面臨的境遇。他們分別是 Zoomers(遠程辦公者,利用 Zoom 或 Google 在家辦公的一群人,他們拿著全額薪金在家辦公,甚至免于日常通勤,可以說是受疫情影響最小的一類人)、Zeros(零工一族,他們與簽訂著零工時合同,拿著最 低的工資、干著最危險的活)以及 Gen Z(Z世代,正在步入職場的一批人,他們面臨著前所未有的壓力與挑戰)。

Zoomers, zeros and Gen Z

遠程辦公者、零工一族以及Z世代

The pandemic has widened two divides in the labour market

新冠疫情將進一步拉大就業市場的兩大鴻溝

Countries are beginning to emerge from economic lockdown. As they do, the statistics show how different segments of the population have been affected by the pandemic. And the evidence is clear that the virus has widened existing divides between professionals, low-paid workers and the young.

各國的經濟正在走向復蘇。與此同時,我們透過統計數據能夠看到疫情對不同階層的人們所造成的影響。有確鑿證據顯示,新冠病毒進一步拉大了專業工作者、低薪工人和年輕人之間本就存在的鴻溝。

Start with the most fortunate. Many professionals can easily work at home, replacing one-to-one meetings with phone calls and group meetings with Zoom gatherings or Google hangouts. These “Zoomers” are mostly working on full pay and are currently being spared the daily commute. For them, the lockdown may be an inconvenience (particularly if they have children) but it is not a threat to their standards of living.

先說說最幸運的人。許多專業工作者可以輕松地在家辦公,以打電話的方式代替一對一面談,以 Zoom 會議和 Google 會議代替小組會議。這些“遠程辦公者”不僅拿著全額薪金,還免去了日常通勤的麻煩。對他們來說,封鎖措施可能確實會帶來不便(尤其對于有小孩的家庭來說),但不至于影響他們的生活水平。

For many others, however, the pandemic is a serious threat. Some are key workers, who have to attend their jobs and are at more risk from the virus. Others cannot work from home and have either lost their jobs or seen their incomes cut (despite help from government schemes). Many in this group were already in a weaker position than the Zoomers, because they were in jobs with lower wages or less security.

但對于其他許多人來說,這場疫情卻嚴重威脅著生計。有些關鍵崗位的工人必須親臨現場,他們感染新冠病毒的風險更大。還有些人由于工作無法在家完成,他們要么丟了工作,要么收入減少(盡管政府也有援助計劃)。這個群體中的許多人相較于那些遠程辦公者而言本身就處于弱勢地位,他們往往從事著低收入或高風險的工作。

Some people in this less fortunate group can be dubbed the “zeros”. In Britain, almost three-quarters of those on zero-hours contracts are key workers or work in shut-down sectors, says the Resolution Foundation, a think-tank.

  在這個不幸的群體中,有些人可以被稱作“零工一族”。據智庫決議基金會稱,在英國,近四分之三拿著零工時合同的工人就職于關鍵崗位或已停工行業。

A further clue to the toll on the low-paid came from the latest American non-farm payroll figures. Average hourly earnings rose by 4.7% in April, the biggest monthly gain on record. That sounds like good news but isn’t.

最 新的美國非農就業數據進一步凸顯了低薪工人所受的影響。今年4月,美國的平均時薪上漲了4.7%,創下了自有記錄以來的最 大月增幅。這聽起來像是個好消息,但事實并非如此。

  It is the result of low-wage workers losing jobs in sectors like hospitality. The same trend can be seen in Britain, where the average wage of those in shut-down sectors is less than half of those working at home, according to the Resolution Foundation.

這一結果是由于酒店等行業的低薪工人失業所致。英國也面臨著同樣的情況,據決議基金會的數據顯示,那些就職于已停工行業的工人的平均工資還不及那些在家辦公者的一半。

The mortality rates make even grimmer news. The low-paid (and ethnic minorities) have suffered most. Figures from Britain’s Office for National Statistics showed that death rates of security guards, care workers and bus drivers were much higher than average, while those in “professional occupations” had death rates well below the mean.

更讓人感到悲傷的是有關死亡率的數據。低收入人群(及少數族裔)有著更高的死亡率。據英國國家統計局的數據顯示,保安、護工和公交車司機的死亡率遠高于平均水平,而那些專業技術人員的死亡率則遠低于平均水平。

Another great divide is between those already established in the workforce and Generation Z—those born in the late 1990s and early 2000s who are now coming of age. They are entering a job market extremely hostile to their prospects. Around 30% of British employees aged under 25 worked in one of the shut-down sectors, according to the Institute for Fiscal Studies, another think-tank, compared with 13% of those aged over 25.

另一條巨大的鴻溝則存在于那些已在職場站穩腳跟的人與Z世代(指出生于20世紀90年代末和21世紀初的那批人)之間。他們正在步入一個前景堪憂的勞動力市場。據另一家智庫財政研究所的數據顯示,在英國,有近30%的25歲以下就業者就職于已停工的行業,而25歲以上就業者的這一比例僅為13%。

Those in university education are also badly affected. For a start, it is harder to get work experience. In America 22% of employers have cancelled internship offers, according to the National Association of Colleges and Employers.

大學在校生也深受影響。首先,他們將難以獲得工作經歷。據全美高校與雇主協會的數據顯示,22%的美國雇主不再提供實習機會了。

In the first week of May just under 2,500 internships were posted on Monster.com, a recruitment website, compared with over 18,000 in the same week last year. Many of the remaining internships were in roles which could be done remotely. In Britain firms have cut entry-level jobs by 23%, says the Institute of Student Employers, a recruiters’ association.

今年5月的第一周,招聘網站 Monster.com 上僅發布了不到2500個實習崗位,而去年同期則有多達18000個。在僅剩的這些實習崗位中,其中許多都可以遠程辦公。據學生雇主協會(英國一家招聘協會)稱,英國企業已經削減了23%的初級崗位。

The short-term shock of the pandemic will leave long-term scars. The Resolution Foundation estimates that the pandemic means those emerging from education this year will be less likely to have jobs in three years’ time. The likelihood of being in employment would fall by 13% for graduates and 37% for those with the fewest qualifications.

疫情很快就會過去,但卻會產生長久的影響。據決議基金會估計,這場疫情將使今年的畢業生在未來三年都難以就業。畢業生的就業率或將下降13%,而對于那些低學歷者來說,降幅甚至將達到37%。

(紅色標注詞為重難點詞匯)

重難點詞匯:

emerge [ɪˈmɜːrdʒ] vi. 浮現;擺脫;暴露

dub [dʌb] v.將……稱作

internship offer 實習機會

qualification [ˌkwɑːlɪfɪˈkeɪʃn] n. 資格;學歷;條件;限制

原標題:經濟學人 | 就業市場的鴻溝正在擴大

文章來源:https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/2kKDEJDRHHyd7QbT3V8QFA

 

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